Aspect ratio is a measure of the ratio between the span of the wing to its chord. In most cases the wing chord is not equal along the length of the span which is why aspect ratio is most commonly calculated by dividing the square of the wing span by the reference wing area.
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The reference wing area is defined as the plan area of an aircraft’s wing (usually including the area of the wing through the fuselage).
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See the image below which shows a number of fundamental definitions typically associated with airfoil nomenclature.
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Angle of attack refers to the angle between a reference line on a body and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving.
It is most often used in an aeronautical context to describe the angle between the chordline of an airfoil and the relative wind or resultant direction of airflow. In cases where a wing has twist, it is often taken as the angle between the chordline at the wing root and the relative wind.
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Vector and Scalar quantities are mathematical formulations that assist us in modelling the physical quantities of the world around us. Some quantities can be fully described by just quoting the quantity’s value or magnitude, for example: the temperature today is 74°F. The temperature at a point is constant at that point and doesn’t require knowing the direction to fully describe it.
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